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The Dilemmas of Professional Development

author: Virginia Richardson
description: This piece provides an interesting explanation of some of the challenges districts face in providing effective professional development. The author discusses how the cultural norm of individualism may be the strongest force working against the use of research-based professional development practices. She goes on to describe an approach to professional development that takes this American trait into account and "can bring teachers together around a problem and that requires their joint effort, while allowing them to maintain their sense of autonomy, expertise, and individual efficacy."
URL link:
published in: Phi Delta Kappan
published: January 2003
posted to site: 02/20/2003